In the simplest systems there may be only a single circuit from battery to ignition coil, through contact points and back to the other post of the battery. It is an expensive material. Single-wire earth return (SWER) or single-wire ground return is a single-wire transmission line which supplies single-phase electric power from an electrical grid to remote areas at low cost. Most faults (overcurrent) are transient.

2.1.1 Chassis Support System Manufactured homes are constructed on a chassis consisting of main steel beams and cross members; fitted axles, leaf springs, and wheels making up the running gear; and a steel hitch assembly. For the telecommunications use, see, Victoria, Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission. SWER is a viable choice for a distribution system when conventional return current wiring would cost more than SWER's isolation transformers and small power losses. If the poles also carry optical fiber cable for telecommunications (metal conductors may not be used), capital expenditures by the power company may be further reduced. You can connect a single jumper cable from the negative post (the "hot" terminal) to a metal post driven into the earth. A surge arrestor (spark gap) on the high voltage side is common, especially in lightning-prone areas. Power engineers experienced with both SWER and conventional power lines rate SWER as equally safe, more reliable, less costly, but with slightly lower efficiency than conventional lines. Researchers at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, United States estimate that a network of such lines, combined with coastal wind turbines, could substantially reduce rural Alaska's dependence on increasingly expensive diesel fuel for power generation. [9] SWER is also used extensively in Brazil.[16].

The first common "solid state" electronic gadget in cars was the transistorized radio, starting in the mid 50's. The rare earth magnets are exempted from demagnetizing problems due to armature reaction. The component is earthed to the car body, which is … The idea that a vehicle has an "earth" connection (or electrical grounding point) is only a traditional method of naming certain types of electrical connections (carried over from terminology used in earlier single wire electrical systems). [2] More than 200,000 kilometres have now been installed in Australia and New Zealand.

From the earth stake, the current eventually finds its way back to the main step-up transformer at the head of the line, completing the circuit. [3] Though theoretically sound, this is not standard practice. It is considered safe, reliable and low-cost, provided that safety features and earthing are correctly installed. The SWER line is a single conductor that may stretch for tens or even hundreds of kilometres, with a number of distribution transformers along its length. This earth connection is then protected from cathodic corrosion because voltage is lower than the ground potential. The next common electronic gadget for cars was the triode bridge in the alternator, circa early 60's. Many standard SWER poles have several bolt holes to support this upgrade.

[3] SWER is therefore a practical example of a phantom loop. In Mozambique, poles had to be at least 12 m (39 ft) high to permit safe passage of giraffes beneath the lines. Wooden poles are acceptable. Most of the early transistor car radios had a polarity plug on the back so they could be used in either positive or negative ground applications. The basic idea of an electrical safety earth (or ground) is pretty much the same everywhere, but the details can vary widely. Earthing, or grounding, in its most simplistic sense represents a method of having a system to guide potentially dangerous amounts of electricity to a safe source, such as the earth. [11] The first step may be to replace the steel wire with more expensive copper-clad or aluminum-clad steel wire. In areas with high-resistance soil, the resistance of the soil wastes energy. Even if there is no earth or chassis connection it is common to refer to one point or voltage in the circuit as “ground”. In a negative (-) earth-return system, the current flows from the positive (+) terminal to the component being operated. The only good reason for retaining positive earth setup on the older car is for originality (concours show cars). Erection of "anchoring" poles still required heavy machinery, but the cost savings were dramatic. Electric single-phase railway traction, such as light rail, uses a very similar system. I don't really have adverts here: it's funded by wonderful people buying the Car Mechanics Video Course. In a steel chassis car it is entirely arbitrary which side of the battery gets connected to the chassis, so it makes little or no difference if it is positive or negative "ground". Significant currents on the order of 8 amperes flow through the ground near the earth points. Grounding is critical. Vehicles with "solid state" (transistorized) electronic gadgets will invariably be negative earth. When the vehicle sits on rubber tires the entire system has floating electrical system (no ground). The straps and wiring can be arranged to be a low-cost lightning arrestor with rounded edges to avoid attracting a lightning strike. Cars do not actually have electrical grounds. SWER's main advantage is its low cost. You could connect a 12-volt lamp between the vehicle chassis and the earth grounding post, and the lamp would light up. Its distinguishing feature is that the earth (or sometimes a body of water) is used as the return path for the current, to avoid the need for a second wire (or neutral wire) to act as a return path. They have a high residual flux and high coercive magnetizing intensity. For a couple of years in the mid 60's there were a few positive earth alternators, but most people have never seen one. More modern installations use specially-designed AS1222.1[7][8] high-carbon steel, aluminum-clad wires. [10] In these jurisdictions, each SWER line must be approved by exception. In the customary linear form, a single-point failure in a SWER line causes all customers further down the line to lose power. Rare earth magnets are made of Samarium cobalt, neodymium-iron-boron. The Neodymium iron boron is cheaper as compared to Samarium cobalt. In 1981 a high-power 8.5 mile prototype SWER line was successfully installed from a diesel plant in Bethel to Napakiak in Alaska, United States. It does also allow the use of a DC test loop, to distinguish a legitimate variable load from (for example) a fallen tree, which would be a DC path to ground. Single Earth Wire Return (SWER) 10 Modelling SWER Lines • Resistance R1 = R (conductor) + R (earth return path) Allow 0.05 ohms/km at 50 Hz for earth return path. This can cause large currents without a ground-fault indication. For example, since there is only one line, winds can't cause lines to clash, removing a source of damage, as well as a source of rural bush fires. The component is earthed to the car body, which is earthed to the negative (-) terminal of the battery. Any single customer's maximum demand will typically be less than 3.5 kVA, but larger loads up to the capacity of the distribution transformer can also be supplied. It may be possible to increase the voltage. These were DC battery powered systems (sometimes with a generator to recharge the batteries). We simply call the collection of battery return path connections "earth" or "ground" as a naming convention. This requires more insulators and wire, but doubles the power without doubling the poles. My car has a positive ground". Early alternators used silicon plate rectifiers that could be connected for either positive or negative grounding, so some early alternators were made for positive ground applications. After some years of experience, the inventor advocated a capacitor in series with the ground of the main isolation transformer to counteract the inductive reactance of the transformers, wire and earth return path. This is when all alternators became negative ground, and all cars using them were built with electrical return path connected to battery negative. Note R1 = RO • Reactance: – Earth return currents typically flow at average depth of 1500 metres – Increased separation causes approximately In Australia, locations with very dry soils need the grounding rods to be extra deep. During first half of the 20th century some manufacturers used positive ground, others used negative ground, and some switched form one to the other more than once. [14] Alaska's state economic energy screening survey advocated further study of this option to use more of the state's underutilized power sources. The transformer secondary should also be protected by a standard high-rupture capacity (HRC) fuse or low voltage circuit breaker. Single-wire earth return (SWER) or single-wire ground return is a single-wire transmission line which supplies single-phase electric power from an electrical grid to remote areas at low cost. Then the "hot" side of the vehicle system becomes 0-volts in relation to earth ground, and the chassis of the vehicle becomes negative 12-volts. Since the bulk of the transmission line has low resistance attachments to earth, excessive ground currents from shorts and geomagnetic storms are more rare than in conventional metallic-return systems. A good earth connection is normally a 6 m stake of copper-clad steel driven vertically into the ground, and bonded to the transformer earth and tank. The A-framed poles could be carried on lightweight snow machines, and could be installed with hand tools on permafrost without extensive digging. Is there an advantage of one system over the other?

After the home is sited, the chassis frame distributes the manufactured home loads to the foundation system. 7th CEPSI conference. Preventive Maintenance for Earthing System: The earth resistance must need to be checked a minimum two times in a year when it’s a dry season.

If small amounts of three-phase power are needed, it can be economically synthesized from two-phase power with on-site equipment. The design of this site was heavily, heavily inspired by CSS-Tricks under their supercool licence. In autos there is no earth ground. 1876 first telephone. Otherwise this is not necessary and not always true. It operates at 80 kV, and was originally installed on special lightweight fiberglass poles that formed an A-frame. If you have an early production car with positive electrical return path (positive earth), it is generally easy to change the polarity. Since then, the A frames have been removed and standard wooden power poles were installed. [9] Steel's greater strength permits spans of 400 metres or more, reducing the number of poles to 2.5 per kilometre.

In equipment where electrical isolation is provided between sections of the circuit two or more ground symbols may be required to indicate which ground the components are connected to. Lloyd Mandeno, OBE (1888–1973) fully developed SWER in New Zealand around 1925 for rural electrification. Some utilities install higher-voltage insulators so the line can be easily upgraded to carry more power. To avoid electrochemical corrosion, the ground electrodes of such systems are situated apart from the converter stations and not near the transmission cable.

Variations in demand cause variation in the delivered voltage. Modern systems install spiral vibration dampers on the wires.

The Lotus Elite for instance has an all fiberglass unibody with no steel frame, so all of the electrical circuits must have a copper wire conductor for return to the battery.

The substation feeding such lines has a grounding rod on each pole within the substation; then on each branch from the line, the span between the pole next to and the pole carrying the transformer would have a grounded conductor (giving each transformer two grounding points for safety reasons).

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