Because of the low density of the subducting continental plate, it often ends up “underplating” or sliding horizontally beneath the overlying plate for great distances before eventually subducting into the mantle. The Greater Antilles is a grouping of the. This is how Indonesian archipelago and Philippine archipelago were formed.

We only need to know the plates involved with respect to each island formation. Subscribe to our newsletter and never miss an important update!

Ethan Shaw is an independent naturalist and freelance outdoors/nature writer based in Oregon. Subduction initiates as oceanic lithosphere slides beneath continental crust. This is because the Earth is not a perfect sphere (its Geoid); its radius is about 25 kilometres smaller at the poles than at the equator. Convergent boundaries occur where the Earth’s tectonic plates collide or move toward one another.

The magma solidifies creating a volcanic layer. Such volcanic landforms all along the boundary form a, Orogenesis (mountain building) sets in motion the process of, Philippine Island Arc system is formed due to subduction of, In the case of Indonesian Archipelago, the. The collision of this oceanic and continental plate was how the Andes Mountains were formed. Up to this day the Himalayas are growing as theIndian sub-continent continues to push into the Eurasian plate. Though no longer an active subduction zone, the Sierra Nevada of California was home to one over 100 million years ago. A region of high earthquake activity, the Wadati-Benioff zone, generally dips 45° and marks the subducting plate. The Himalayas in Nepal, the European Alps and the Southern Alps in New Zealand are all examples of continental-continental convergent boundaries. Convergent boundaries involves the collision of plates (just like traffic accident) resulting in cataclysmic destruction. He holds a B.S. Subduction zones are often marked by an abundance of earthquakes, the result of internal deformation of the plate, convergence with the opposing plate, and bending at the oceanic trench. Both regions are vulnerable to severe earthquakes associated with this intense plate collision. The oceanic crust contains hydrated minerals such as the amphibole group. Anak Krakatau volcano situated between the Indonesians Islands of Java and Sumatra (Google Maps), 3D view of the Caribbean Islands (Wikipedia Commons), The Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles Island Arcs (Map from Google Earth), Islands in the Lesser Antilles Island Arcs (Map from Google Earth), Plates in the region of Isthmus of Panama. In the ocean, these arcs form island chains like in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska pictured below. [3] As the relatively cool subducting slab sinks deeper into the mantle, it is heated causing dehydration of hydrous minerals. A deep narrow depression known as an Oceanic Trench is formed by the bend of the oceanic plate, for example the Peru-Chile Trench in the west of S. America. It is likely that the plate may break along the boundary of continental and oceanic crust. Convergent boundaries occur between oceanic-oceanic lithosphere, oceanic-continental lithosphere, and continental-continental lithosphere. An example of an oceanic/oceanic convergent boundary is that between the Pacific and Mariana plates, which includes the Mariana Islands arc and a subduction zone encompassing the Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the World Ocean.

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