Fed aquaculture projects include finfish such as salmon and kampachi. Parsons, P.J. While there has been congressional interest in regulating offshore aquaculture for a least a decade, it can best be characterized as intermittent. Seafood Import Monitoring Program,” available at, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries, “Fisheries of the United States 2017” (Washington: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2018), available at, U.S. Department of Agriculture, “USDA Poultry Production Data,” (Washington: 2015), available at, University of Maine Aquaculture Research Institute, “Maine Aquaculture Economic Impact Report,” (Orono, ME: 2017), available at. NOAA Fisheries tracks 479 stocks or stock complexes managed by 46 fishery management plans. Unfed aquaculture can provide ecosystem benefits. The authors would also like to thank the following colleagues for their advice and input: Jocelyn Garovoy Herbert, program officer and attorney, Resources Legacy Fund; Letise LaFeir, Ph.D., program officer, Resources Legacy Fund; Josh Madeira, senior policy manager, Monterey Bay Aquarium; Ariana Spawn, ocean advocate, Oceana; Jerry R. Schubel, president and CEO, Aquarium of the Pacific; Hallie Templeton, senior oceans campaigner, Friends of the Earth; and Kimberly Thompson, director of Seafood for the Future, Aquarium of the Pacific. Specifically, fed aquaculture systems’ waste discharges have had negative effects on local wildlife and habitats.69 In regions of high aquaculture output such as New Brunswick, Canada, salmon aquaculture is the largest anthropogenic source of organic input to the coastal zone, which can fuel more frequent and more intense harmful algal blooms, deplete ambient oxygen, and alter the food chain.70, Given global trends, aquaculture is likely to only grow more central to the global food supply. reported released. Recreational fishing is a popular pastime, contributing billions to our economy. Veterinary drug use is necessary to prevent and treat disease within aquaculture systems, but under-regulated use poses environmental and public health risks.81 Improperly regulated use of antimicrobial drugs can lead to antimicrobial resistance and the presence of drug residues in aquaculture products. The Country Brief and the FAO Fisheries Statistics provided in Part I may, however, have been prepared at different times, which would explain any inconsistencies. The U.S. environment and existing aquaculture structure is suitable for a two-tiered permitting system for aquaculture in federal waters. Seaweed requires only sunlight, and mussels and oysters feed off microscopic plankton that naturally occurs in seawater, sustaining themselves without additional inputs.

We have rebuilt 47 stocks since 2000 as a result of our fishery management process. Feed should be held to the same high sustainability and labor standards as the aquaculture product itself.

Fed aquaculture developments should have to complete an additional series of precautionary measures to address the additional risks associated with the system. The number of stocks on the overfishing list dropped to an all-time low in 2019. Examples of such guidelines—which could inform future policy—already exist. The resulting damage allowed for 263,000 nonnative Atlantic salmon to spill into the Puget Sound and Pacific Ocean in 2017.

The number of anglers who took 61 million recreational fishing trips in 2015, which resulted in a catch of more than 350 million fish with 57 percent New Bedford, Massachusetts, is consistently among the highest value ports in the United States, thanks to the lucrative scallop fishery. Americans, through bold, progressive ideas, as well as strong Harrison, and R. Waters, “An Experimental Simulation of Changes in Diatom and Flagellate Blooms,”, California Environmental Associates, “Offshore Finfish Aquaculture.”, Seafood Watch, “Standard for Aquaculture” (Monterey, CA: Monterey Bay Aquarium, 2015), available at, Best Aquaculture Practices, “BAP Certification,” available at, Christy Goldfuss, “5 Recommendations to Speed Infrastructure Permitting Without Gutting Environmental Review,” Center for American Progress, September 6, 2018, available at, Rebecca R. Gentry, “Offshore aquaculture: Spatial planning principles for sustainable development,”, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries, “Seafood Traceability Program,” available at, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “EPA Regulations Affecting Aquaculture Operations” (Washington: 2018), available at, Andrew Watterson, “Aquaculture/Occupational Safey: Towards Healthy Work,”, Trevor Sutton and Avery Siciliano, “Seafood Slavery: Human Trafficking in the International Fishing Industry” (Washington: Center for American Progress, 2016), available at, World Health Organization, “Antimicrobial Use in Aquaculture and Antimicrobial Resistance” (Geneva: 2006), available at.

In Maine, for instance, aquaculture supports more than 100 aquaculture businesses and more than 1,000 jobs, and 73 percent of aquaculture businesses interviewed by the University of Maine Aquaculture Research Institute expect sales to increase in future years.38. (July 28, 1994), available at, National Sustainable Offshore Aquaculture Act of 2009, H.R.4363, 111th Cong., 1st sess. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, “Fisheries Economics of the United States 2015: Economics and Sociocultural Status and Trends Series” (Washington: U.S. … Thank you to Jean Flemma, independent consultant and co-founder of Ocean Collectiv, for reviewing this report. For example, the Global Aquaculture Alliance’s Best Aquaculture Practices standards—including finfish and crustacean and salmon—set out a broad range of environmental and social standards.

Furthermore, the United States could become an attractive investment opportunity for developers interested in establishing new offshore industries.6 Other stakeholders remain concerned about the significant environmental challenges that are associated with the specific type and location that each aquaculture project presents.7. In the 111th Congress, former Rep. Lois Capps (D-CA) introduced the National Sustainable Offshore Aquaculture Act of 2009, which tried again to establish a regulatory framework for offshore aquaculture in America23 and was supported by a variety of stakeholders, including several environmental nongovernmental organizations24 and trade organizations.25 The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred later the same Congress, however, leading to a competing bill from former Sen. David Vitter (R-LA), titled the Research in Aquaculture Opportunity and Responsibility Act of 2010.26 This bill would have suspended all aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico for three years, which Sen. Vitter explained was in response to the difficulties that the oil spill posed to the Gulf’s ecosystems.27 Neither bill made it to a full chamber discussion or vote before the end of the 111th Congress. This report provides an overview of the current status of aquaculture in the United States before detailing different types of aquaculture and discussing opportunities and challenges in the sector. Carter has previously worked at the U.S. Senate; the California and Oregon Departments of Fish and Wildlife; and as a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-certified fisheries observer in the Bering Sea, Alaska. Dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The President of the United States communicates information on holidays, commemorations, special observances, trade, and policy through Proclamations.



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